AskDefine | Define anaphora

Dictionary Definition

anaphora

Noun

1 using a pronoun or other pro-word instead of repeating a word
2 repetition of a word or phrase as the beginning of successive clauses [syn: epanaphora]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

From etyl grc ἀναφορά from ἀνά + φέρω.

Noun

  1. The repetition of a phrase at the beginning of phrases, sentences, or verses, used for emphasis.
  2. An expression that refers to another expression, especially a preceding one. An example is a pronoun that refers to its antecedent.

Translations

repetition of a phrase used for emphasis
  • Croatian: anafora
  • Dutch: anafoor, anafora
  • French: anaphore
  • German: Anapher
  • Spanish: anáfora
linguistics: expression that refers to another expression
  • Croatian: anafora
  • Dutch: anafoor, anafora
  • French: anaphore
  • German: Anapher

Extensive Definition

In rhetoric, an anaphora (, "carrying back") is emphasizing words by repeating them at the beginnings of neighboring clauses. In contrast, an epiphora is repeating words at the clauses' ends. See also other figures of speech involving repetition.
One figure well-known for his use of Anaphora is Charles Dickens (seen in quote below). Some of his best known works constantly portray their themes through use of this literary tool.

Examples

Strike as I would
Have struck those tyrants!
Strike deep as my curse!
Strike! and but once
Byron
Mad world! Mad kings! Mad composition!
— (William Shakespeare, King John'', II, i)
We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender.
— (Winston Churchill)
What the hammer? what the chain?
In what furnace was thy brain?
What the anvil? what dread grasp
Dare its deadly terrors clasp?''
— (William Blake, from "The Tyger")
Let us not wallow in the valley of despair. I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal." I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state, sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Never shall I forget that night, the first night in camp, which has turned my life into one long night, seven times cursed and seven times sealed. Never shall I forget that smoke. Never shall I forget the little faces of the children, whose bodies I saw turned into wreaths of smoke beneath a silent blue sky. Never shall I forget those flames which consumed my faith forever. Never shall I forget that nocturnal silence which deprived me, for all eternity, of the desire to live. Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to dust. Never shall I forget these things, even if I am condemned to live as long as God Himself. Never.
Elie Wiesel, Night
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way …
Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities

References

  • Greek Grammar
anaphora in Bulgarian: Анафора
anaphora in Catalan: Anàfora
anaphora in German: Anapher
anaphora in Spanish: Anáfora
anaphora in Esperanto: Anaforo (retoriko)
anaphora in French: Anaphore (rhétorique)
anaphora in Galician: Anáfora
anaphora in Croatian: Anafora
anaphora in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Anaphora
anaphora in Icelandic: Klifun (stílbragð)
anaphora in Italian: Anafora (retorica)
anaphora in Hebrew: אנאפורה
anaphora in Hungarian: Adjekció
anaphora in Dutch: Anafoor (stijlfiguur)
anaphora in Norwegian: Anafor
anaphora in Occitan (post 1500): Anafòra
anaphora in Uzbek: Anafora
anaphora in Polish: Anafora (środek stylistyczny)
anaphora in Portuguese: Anáfora
anaphora in Russian: Анафора
anaphora in Slovak: Anafora
anaphora in Swedish: Anafor
anaphora in Tagalog: Anaphora
anaphora in Ukrainian: Анафора
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